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20 Outstanding Doctors from around the world and 6 Memorable Quotations about India.

Dr Sampurna Roy  MD           



1) Dr. U N Brahmachari an Indian doctor and scientist who discovered Urea Stibamine in 1922, for effective treatment of Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar).

Visit: Upendra Nath Brahmachari

A Pioneer of Modern Medicine in India

2) James Parkinson (1755-1824), English physician. Parkinson's disease was named after him. He identified the disease as "shaking palsy". 

3) Robert James Graves (1797-1853), an Irish physician.  Graves' disease ( originally known as exophthalmic goitre ) was named after him. He fully described the disease in 1835.

4)  Oswaldo Cruz (1871-1917), Brazilian physician.   Cruz trypanosomiasis, same as Chagas' disease was named after him.

5) John T. Bowen (b. 1857), dermatologist of Boston, U.S.A. Bowen's disease, a skin disease marked by the formation of a pinkish papule or tubercle covered by a thickened horn layer, and classed as a precancerous dermatosis.

6) Moritz John Kaposi (1837-1902), Hungarian dermatologist practising in Austria described Kaposi's sarcoma.

7) Armand Trousseau (1801-1867), French physician. - Trousseau's phenomenon or sign, and Trousseau's spots are named after him.

8) Ferdinand von Arlt (1812-1887), ophthalmologist, of Vienna - He was an eminent operator and teacher, founder of ophthalmopathology, recognized the true cause of myopia (elongation of the eye-ball) and introduced a chart of letters, later improved by Snellen.

9) Herodotus (500 B. C.) describes Egypt, as being full of medical practitioners, who were all "specialists." The ophthalmic surgeons were celebrated, and practised at the court of Cyrus.

10) Johann Friedrich Meckel (1724-1774), German anatomist.- Meckel's cartilage, diverticulum and ganglion were named after him.

11) Samuel Dugan Bird, contemporary Australian physician. Bird's sign, a definite zone of dullness with absence of respiratory sounds in hydatid disease of the lung, was named after him.

12) Caesar P. M. Boeck (1845-1917), dermatologist of Christiana, Norway - Boeck's disease was named after him , It is characterized by multiple benign sarcoid characterized by large nodules and reddish papules which disappear, leaving a discolored area.

13) CasparThomesen Bartholinus (1655-1738), Danish physician, who taught anatomy at Copenhagen. Bartholin's glands and Bartholin's duct are named after him

14) Lorenzo Bellini (1643-1704), Italian physician and anatomist born at Florence. Bellini's ducts (the excretory ducts of the kidneys) take their name from Lorenzo Bellini. At the age of twenty he had already described the ducts known by his name.

15) Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec (1781-1826), French physician, enriched the physical method of examination by  the invention of auscultation. He invented the stethoscope.

16) Rhazes (Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya el-Razi, 10th century), a native of Rai, Persia, who practiced medicine with distinction at Bagdad, is credited with having first accurately described smallpox and measles.

17) Vulimiri Ramalingaswami ( 1921 -2001). Indian Pathologist. He made important contribution in the discovery of new syndrome of Non-cirrhotic Portal Fibrosis (NCPF) and Indian Childhood Cirrhosis.


Steven I. Hajdu, in his article "Pathologists Who Attained Fame Without Using Microscopy" mentioned the names of three great pathologists :  This is an incredible article.

18) Giovanni Battista Morgagni (16821771), - Italy

19) Matthew Baillie (17611823), and - Britain

20) Carl Rokitansky (18041878). - Vienna

18)  19) & 20)"They all had anatomist mentors, inherited collections of anatomic specimens from their predecessors, practiced anatomic and medico-legal autopsy pathology, believed in correlating clinical symptoms with postmortem pathologic changes, were professors of anatomy and pathology, and drew students and followers from every corner of the world. 

Note the line: Rokitansky method of reporting autopsy findings angered some practitioners of clinical medicine. They became so annoyed that they complained to the authorities in an unsuccessful effort to have his medical license revoked.

This proves that great people had to fight against haters and jealous people for thousands of years.

Still they achieved greatness because of their happy positive attitude, great knowledge, hard work, willpower and dedication to their profession.


6 Memorable Quotations about India:


- India was the motherland of our race, and Sanskrit the mother of Europe's languages: she was the mother of our philosophy; mother, through the Arabs, of much of our mathematics; mother, through the Buddha, of the ideals embodied in Christianity; mother, through the village community, of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all". Will Durant, American historian


- If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most fully developed some of its choicest gifts, has most deeply pondered on the greatest problems of life, and has found solutions, I should point to India. Max Mueller, German scholar:


- Whenever I have read any part of the Vedas, I have felt that some unearthly and unknown light illuminated me. In the great teaching of the Vedas, there is no touch of sectarianism. It is of all ages, climbs, and nationalities and is the royal road for the attainment of the Great Knowledge.When I read it, I feel that I am under the spangled heavens of a summer night. Henry David Thoreau, American Thinker & Author:


- If there is one place on the face of earth where all the dreams of living men have found a home from the very earliest days when man began the dream of existence, it is India. Romain Rolland, French scholar  


- India is, the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only. Mark Twain, American author


- It is already becoming clear that a chapter which had a Western beginning will have to have an Indian ending if it is not to end in the self-destruction of the human race. At this supremely dangerous moment in history, the only way of salvation for mankind is the Indian way.  Dr Arnold Toynbee, British Historian: 





Dr  Sampurna Roy  MD

Consultant  Histopathologist (Kolkata - India)






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