Hyperplasia of the gallbladder
Dysplasia of the
gallbladder epithelium is characterized by pseudostratification and
disorganization of the lining epithelium.
The cells show hyperchromatism, nuclear crowding, loss of cellular polarity and
increased mitotic activity.
The dysplastic changes
may be seen in flat mucosa or there may be small papillary
Microscopic images of
gallbladder mucosa showing dysplastic changes. Small papillary
projections are present.
Microscopic images of flat
gallbladder mucosa showing dysplastic changes.
Most cases of
gallbladder adenocarcinoma are preceded by intestinal metaplasia,
dysplasia (atypical hyperplasia) and carcinoma in situ.
In the presence of
dysplastic changes of the gallbladder epithelium, the histopathologist
should carefully examine the specimen to rule out any foci of invasive
(intestinal and gastric types) may be present in the gallbladder
mucosa adjacent to dysplastic epithelium and in invasive
adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.
carcinoma in situ is used to describe severe atypical changes of the
lining epithelial cells of an adenomatous polyp in the absence of