Also known as calcified gallbladder,
calcifying cholecystitis, or
cholecystopathia chronica calcarea.
Porcelain gallbladder is the
term used to denote the end-stage of chronic cholecystitis in which there
is gallbladder wall calcification.
It is a rare condition
0.06 and 0.08% of cholecystectomy specimens.
are five times more common in women than in men.
porcelain gallbladder describes the blue discoloration and brittle
consistency of the gallbladder on pathology.
The gall bladder is
contracted with a slightly thickened or grossly thickened wall, which
is brittle and calcified.
- Gallbladder wall
chronic irritation by gallstones (present in up to 95% of the cases).
Cystic duct obstruction with bile stagnation cause mucosal calcium
calcification, errors of calcium metabolism, inflammation and
- Bile stasis, chronic
degeneration and regeneration with mucosal dysplasia likely contribute
- Porcelain gallbladder
can also be seen,in patients who have acalculous cholecystitis.
features: Histologically, the wall is extensively fibrous with some
hyalinization of the collagen.
The calcification is in broad bands or
as small intramural concretions.
The mucosa may be frequently absent
and replaced by fibrous tissue.
Porcelain gallbladder is
an uncommon finding, however, due to the greatly increased chance of
malignancy, it must be considered in patients who have cystic type
calcification in the right upper abdominal quadrant.
A calcified gallbladder
is associated with an increased risk of gallbladder cancer, but at a
much lower rate than previously estimated.
The incidence of cancer
depends on the pattern of calcification, selective mucosal
calcification poses a significant risk of cancer whereas diffuse
intramural calcification does not.