The gall-bladder is pear shaped, 7.5 to 12.5 cm long, with a capacity
of about 50 ml, but capable of fifty-fold distension.
subdivisions are, a fundus, a body, and a neck which terminates in the
distal part of the neck forms a pouch, called Hartmann’s pouch, a
common site for a solitary gall-stone to lodge.
fibers in the wall of the gall-bladder are arranged in a criss-cross
manner, being particularly well developed in the neck.
membrane contains indentations of the mucosa that sink into the muscle
coat - these are the crypts of Luschka.
duct is about 2.5 cm in length. Internal projections of circular
muscle fibers account for the spiral valve of Heister, which makes the
passage of calculi difficult.
hepatic duct is usually less than 2.5 cm long, and is formed by the
union of the right and left hepatic ducts.
bile duct, about 7.5 cm long, is formed by the junction of the cystic
and the common hepatic ducts.
divided into four parts:
supraduodenal portion, about 2.5 cm long, runs in the free edge of the
infraduodenal portion lying in a groove, but at times in a tunnel in
the posterior surface of the pancreas.
intraduodenal portion passes obliquely through the wall of the second
part of the duodenum and is surrounded by the sphincter of Oddi and
then forms an ampulla (Vater) before terminating with an opening on
the summit of the duodenal papilla.
Microscopic features of normal
The wall of the
gallbladder is composed of three layers: mucosa ; muscularis and
serosa. There is no muscularis mucosae or submucosa.
There are different
sized branching folds lined by single layer of columnar cells with a
pale cytoplasm and basally located nuclei.
The lamina propria is
composed of loose connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves and some
The muscle layer is
composed of haphazardly distributed bundles of smooth muscle fibers.
Calot's triangle was
first described by Jean-François Calot as an "isosceles" triangle in 1891. It is an anatomical landmark of special importance in cholecystectomy.
Boundaries of Calot's triangle:
The cystic duct, which is often tortuous and has a beaded appearance,
passes downward and to the left to join the common duct, the
cystic artery arises from the hepatic artery and passes under the
common hepatic duct to the gallbladder. These three structures— On the
right cystic duct, on the left common hepatic duct and superiorly
cystic artery— form the Calot's
- On the right proximal part of gallbladder and
cystic duct, on the left common hepatic duct and superiorly the margin
of the right lobe of the liver.